The text is arranged as comments on the reign of various Marquis and Dukes and it was likely completed no later than 389 B. Its elements are regarded as dynamic, interdependent modes or aspects of the universe’s ongoing existence and development.
All objects of reality are some combination and in interdependent operation of these five. To do so, they provide the reader with information about these patterns, which offers substantial content about the ontology of the period.
This explains in part why Mozi considered the ontological concept of (fate) to be one a philosopher must reject.
To speak collectively of “Lao-Zhuang” tradition is to identify a set of philosophical sentiments and positions in common between the two classical works of emergent Daoism in Chinese intellectual history: the ascribed to Zhuang Zhou (369-289 B. E.) are composite works not written by a single author.
Moreover, the source of a universal morality that overcomes and corrects human ethical conceptions is Heaven’s will mediated through the ruler.
Holding such a view is one of the reasons why Mozi is committed to a rejection of the philosophical position that the happenings in the course of reality’s process are predestined or fated ().
We have already noticed in our survey of the earliest Chinese ontologies that reality (that is, “Heaven and earth”) is a constant process, but the changes are not haphazard.
The Chinese term used to capture the order reality exhibits is has no mind: It is not planning or working by a design toward a goal it is trying to reach.
It is a handbook traceable to the period and practices of the Western Zhou dynasty as indicated, among other features, by its use of language expressions found on the bronzes of that period (c. It enables identification of kinds and categories of things, without recourse to an ontology in which there is a pluralism of essentially different sorts of substances.
Chinese philosophers inheriting the ontology of the ) of something, but “nature” does not refer to some underlying essence or immaterial substance that makes something what it is in distinction from other things.
“Nature” is a way of talking about the manner of is a record of occurrences of the Spring and Autumn Period (771-468 B. E.) that traditionally has been ascribed to Zuo Qiuming, a court writer who lived in the State of Lu during the time of Confucius. Remarking on the 7 correlative ontology refers to a conceptual scheme that is found in traditional Chinese thought.
He holds that accepting such a position would mean that one’s status, health, wealth, success, and longevity are already determined and not consequences of one’s effort or choices in life. In fact, Mozi says the concept of fate should be regarded as a creation of evil kings and peasant farmers.
His point is that some kings used this philosophical idea as a means to justify their positions of power and wealth, while the peasants used it to explain why their reduced situation in life was not a result of living wrongly, or failing to better themselves; that is, it was fated that they be poor.